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[Tools, Tips & Tutorials] [MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 50: All You Need To Know About SIM Cards!

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Lesson 50: All you need to know about SIM cards

Greetings
MIUIers,

How have you been lately? The great news is that our MIUI Device Classroom is about to making half century. Yes, you heard right! so far 49 Device Classroom lessons have been completed by our MIUI DEVICE TEAM, I'm glad that I was the one that endorsing this great initiative into Lesson 50. Proud to be a part of DEVICE TEAM. Device Team Rocks! Without further ado, let me begin the class. So in this class, we are going to discuss 'All you need to know about SIM Cards'.


Lesson 50
Capture.PNG

History Of SIM Cards

The first SIM card was developed in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient, who sold the first 300 SIM cards to the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. During the first stage of SIM cards being introduced, it is named as "Full Size SIM". It looks like a credit card and its size is about the credit card. The 25-by-15-millimeter mini SIM arrived in the late 1990s followed by the 15-by-12-millimeter micro SIM in 2003 and the 12.3-by-8.8-millimeter nano SIM in 2012.


As technology developed, the cell phone began to shrink in size and so did the SIM card. The mini SIM card, which is about one-third the size of a credit card. But today we are using smartphones that use SIM cards which are smaller in size. These SIM cards may vary in size but all have the functionality for both the identification and authentication of the subscriber’s phone to its network and can also contain storage for phone numbers, SMS, other information.


Full-Size SIM | Mini SIM | Micro SIM | Nano SIM

What is SIM Card

A SIM card is a small piece of technology with many big uses. The SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is a fundamental component of cellular phones. It is known as an Integrated Circuit Card (ICC), which is a micro controller-based access module. It is a physical entity and can be either a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) or a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC). A SIM can be removed from a cellular handset and inserted into another, which allows users to port identity, personal information, and service between devices. All cell phones are expected to incorporate some type of identity module eventually in part because of this useful property. It is also possible to store contacts on many SIM cards, such as contact list data and SMS messages. Most SIM cards have a capacity between 32 to 256 KB.


A SIM card offers security for both the user’s data and his or her calls. The cards can be locked, meaning that only someone who has the correct Personal Identification Number (PIN) can use the card. If the phone is stolen, the thief cannot use a locked SIM or get any information about it without the PIN.

Structure and Anatomy of SIM Cards

Structure of SIM Card

Your SIM card is used to identify your phone on the mobile telephony network. Various data is held in the small gold chip, such as an authentication key, network specific information, numbers for sending SMS texts and details about the mobile network we use.


Anatomy of a SIM Card

The gold section as you can see contains the vital stuff. Around this is a card body, which is made from plastic and it is only there to provide a shape for the SIM.


Microprocessor based SIM cards

SIM card is like a micro-computer system. It contains a processor, memory and an IO interface. There is no way to access SIM card memory directly. The most important part of the SIM card is its Microcontroller. It is a paper sized chip which is a typical ROM with a size between 64 KB to 512 KB. The RAM size ranges between 1KB to 8KB while the EEPROM size is between 16KB to 512 KB. The ROM contains the OS (Operating System) for the card, while the EEPROM contains data called personalization that includes security keys, phone book, SMS settings etc. The operating voltage of SIM maybe 1.8V, 3V or 5V but most of the modern SIM support all the volts. There are two types of microprocessor cards. These cards take the form of either contact cards, which require a card reader, or contact-less cards, which use radio frequency signals to operate.

Architecture of SIM cards


Types and Sizes of SIM Cards

Types of SIM cards
  • GSM
GSM technology stands for Global System for Mobiles and its foundation can be credited to Bell Laboratories in 1970.  It basically uses circuit switched system and divides each 200 kHz signal into 8 25 kHz time slots and operates in 900 MHz, 800 MHz, and 1.8 GHz bands. It uses a narrow band transmission technique- basically Time Division Access Multiplexing. The data transfer rates vary from 64kbps to 120kbps.


  • CDMA

CDMA means code division multiple access which explains about communication channel principle that employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme which is time division multiplexing scheme and frequency division multiplexing scheme. Actually, CDMA SIMs having more difficult to activate the SIM. Due to lack of security reasons and headaches to users.

network providers shifted to GSM SIM cards for safe and easy use like Ready to Go.



Sizes of SIM cards


While it seems similar in size to the multi-gigabyte memory card but it can only contain about 128 to 256 kilobytes of user-writable data. This is just enough to store basic information such as your contacts names and numbers and in some cases a small number of text messages. You’ll always have a minimum of 250 contacts and maximum of 1000 depends on SIM capacity.cool isn't?

How SIM Card Works

  
File System

The SIM cards also have a file system like every peripheral device has. Files are two types: DF (Dedicated File - Folder analog) and EF (Elementary File - an analog of a regular file). The root DF file is called MF (Master File).

Typical SIM Card File System
111913_0023_SIMCardFore4.jpg

If I'm going to start about File Systems then this is going to be a lengthy class. So i'll make this short, simply a File System of SIM card is the combination of different keys in groups/directories. The SIM card file system stores secret keys, address book, recent SMS, provider’s name, preferred roaming networks, forbidden network, etc. Naturally, there are levels of access to files. These keys are not even readable by others, which eliminates the possibility to be read the data from the outside because of this, SIM card is also called as Security Card. These keys are responsible for a working SIM card.


Integrated Circuit Card Identifier or ICCID

  • It is the Primary account number that is 19 digits long. It is also called SIM Serial Number. The number has sections like Issuer Identification Number or IIN, Individual Account Identification, Check digit etc.

International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI

  • It is used to identify the individual operator network. Normally it has 15 digits (can be shorter but not longer). Its first 3 digits represent Mobile Country Code or MCC, the next 2 to 3 digits represents the Mobile Network Code or MNC,
  • The next digits represent the Mobile Subscriber Identification Number or MSIN.

Authentication Key (Ki)

It is a 128 bit used to authentication of the SIM card on the mobile network. Each SIM has a unique Authentication Key assigned by the operator during personalization. The Authentication Key is also stored in the database of the carrier’s network.When the mobile phone first activates using the SIM card, it gets the International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI from the SIM card and transfers it to the mobile operator for authentication. The database in the operating system searches for incoming IMSI and the associated Authentication key. The operator database then generates a RandomNumber or RAND and signs it with the IMSI and gives another number called Signed Response 1(SRES_ 1). The RAND will be sending to the mobile phone SIM then signs it with the Authentication Key and produces the SRES_ 2 which then passes into the operator network. The operator network then compares the SRES_1 it produced and the SRES_2 from the mobile phone. If both matches, then the SIM is authenticated or activated.


Location Area Identity (LAI)
This is the information stored in the SIM about the local network available. The operator network is divided into different small areas each having a LAI. The LAI is broadcast regularly on a Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). A mobile station (e.g. cell phone) recognizes the LAI and stores it in the SIM Card. If the mobile station is moving and notices a change of LAI, it will issue a location update request, thereby informing the mobile provider of its new LAI. This allows the provider to locate the mobile station in case of an incoming call. This record is kept in a database such as the Visitor Location Register (VLR) in the GSM network.


Abbreviated dialing numbers (ADN)


Any number and name dialed by the subscriber are saved by the ADN. The type of number and numbering plan identification is also maintained under this. This function works on the subscriber’s commonly dialed numbers. The ADN cannot be changed by the service provider but they can be attributed to the user of the phone. Most SIMs provide 100 slots for ADN entries.


Last number dialed (LND)

The LND EF contains the number most recently dialed by the subscriber. The number and name associated with that number are stored in this entry. Depending upon the phone, it is also conceivable that the information may be stored in the handset and not on the SIM. Any numbers that may be present can provide valuable information to an investigator.


XML Phonebook Entry
We are all aware that SIMs has a storage capacity and that can store contacts and messages. Typically most of the SIM cards support more than 200 contacts. Once contacts are deleted they cannot be recovered by any means. There are only two fields in a contact: one for the contact name and another for the phone number. You cannot store multiple phone numbers under a single contact name in SIM card. Have you ever wonder how it stores! It'll be stored in XML format and can be accessed by that mobile firmware. Updation, deletion, creation all will be taken care by mobile OS. Here's a basic code format of that XML.


Messaging Information

Messaging is a communication medium by which text is entered on one cell phone and delivered via the mobile phone network. The short message service contains texts and associated parameters for the message. SMS entries contain other information besides the text itself, such as the time an incoming message was sent, as recorded by the mobile phone network, the sender’s phone number, the SMS center address, and the status of the entry. An SMS is limited to either 160 characters (Latin alphabet) or 70 characters (for other alphabets). Longer messages are broken down by the sending phone and reassembled by the receiving phone. Up to 256 SMS can be stored on a SIM card. Depending on the size of the EEPROM in SIM cards, message storage capacity changes. There is no space for saving multimedia messages.

Here's a pictorial intro about what actually store in SIM Card and in which position.


Here's How SIM Cards Are Made

A SIM body is basically made out of PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride). Semiconductors are later added on to create the circuitry. For quite some time now, the preferred material for card body design has been either ABS or PET. Both materials boast better environmental compatibility than conventional PVC in terms of production and disposal. In addition to ABS, PET, or PVC, it is possible to make the card body out of compostable (biodegradable) material.


Here's the basic process in the card production
  • 1. SIM cards consist of microchips which are manufactured by separate companies.

   

  • 2. Each module consists of white rectangle in the center which is the center of the SIM card microchip.
  • 3. Once SIM cards made by different vendors, they are ready to tape with modules.
  • 4. The wafer is cut into microchips which are mounted on the pads, then the contacts are being unsoldered and the microchip is filled with glue. All of this structure is called a "module".
  • 5. The modules are taken from the tapes and mounted on a plastic bottom of the card, then the file system and applications are downloaded, and a card is personalized - data loading, which is unique to each card (different IDs, keys, ICCID and PIN codes)
  • 6. Then the final SIM card is ready to be dispatched.

.
Finally a brief simplified table comparison of the different keywords, abbreviations and their description for a visual aid understanding what we have discussed in this class.

QQ截图20170719102043.jpg

Thanks for reading! Hope you all learned something useful in this class. Stay tuned for the next class by the Device Team . Class Dismissed!

Previous Lessons


Lesson 1 - Marcus
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 1: Overview of Smartphone Specifications
Lesson 2 - Kamal
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 2: All about Phone Screen, PPI, Gorilla Glass
Lesson 3 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 3: All about Processor and its Basic Info
Lesson 4 - abhoysm
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 4: Knowing Your Phone Battery and Charging Myths
Lesson 5 - Doraha
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 5: All about the Screen Protectors
Lesson 6 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 6: GPS: All you need to know
Lesson 7 - Simran
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 7: All about Rooting Your Device
Lesson 8 - Doraha
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 8: Different Sensors Available in Phone! [Part 1]
Lesson 9 - Doraha
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 9: Different Sensors Available in Phone! [Part 2]
Lesson 10 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 10: Basic Info on NFC
Lesson 11 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 11: Basic Info on Bluetooth
Lesson 12 - BharatG
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 12: All About Mobile Network
Lesson 13 - srav1
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 13: Basics of Wireless Charging
Lesson 14 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 14: Basic Info on Charging Adapter
Lesson 15 - Soumya_2002
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson:15: All About QUALCOMM Quick Charge
Lesson 16 - Ghanshyamshinde
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 16: All about LED flash
Lesson 17 - Satyajit
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 17: The IR Blaster
Lesson 18 - Bhagz
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 18: All About Kernel
Lesson 19 - Soumya_2002
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 19: How To Spot A Fake Xiaomi Phone
Lesson 20 - faisal337
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 20: Mobile Heating
Lesson 21 - Laata
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 21: WiFi Direct
Lesson 22 - Soumya_2002
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 22: All About MicroSD Cards
Lesson 23 - Raaj52
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 23: All About MediaTek PumpExpress
Lesson 24 - Nig_ZA
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 24: All About Miracast
Lesson 25 - ansarifauwaz
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 25: All About VPN
Lesson 26 - SpideyMan
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 26: Basics of Drivers
Lesson 27 - soumya_2002
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 27: How A Mi Band Works
Lesson 28 - Nig_ZA
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 28: All About Cellphone Cameras
Lesson 29 - SpideyMan
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 29: All About Ingress Protection Water and Dust Proofing
Lesson 30 - Nig_ZA
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 30: All About Li-Fi
Lesson 31 - coolmihir
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 31: All About Fingerprint Sensors!
Lesson 32 - larstas
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 32: Basic information on speaker & microphone
Lesson 33 - rahul_09
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 33: All About USB!
Lesson 34 - ydd0ras
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 34: All About CPU and GPU Governors!
Lesson 35 - larstas
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 35: All About Smartphone Dual Cameras!
Lesson 36 - larstas
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 36: All About Smartphone Dual LED Flashes!
Lesson 37 - ydd0ras
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 37: All about battery optimization!
Lesson 38 - coolmihir
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 38 : All About Iris Scanners!
Lesson 39 - CLAYTON_WWC
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 39 : Depth Insight about CPU and GPU
Lesson 40 - coolmihir
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 40 : All About APN!
Lesson 41 - CLAYTON_WWC
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 41: All About CDLA Technology!
Lesson 42 - CLAYTON_WWC
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 42: All You Need to Know About Wi-Fi!
Lesson 43 - rahul_09
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 43: All About Power Banks and Its Specs
Lesson 44 - larstas
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 44: All About Ceramic in Phones and Devices!
Lesson 45 - cherri94
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 45: All You Need to Know About Custom ROM!
Lesson 46 - saikumarsk
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 46: All About Device Boots and Partitions!
Lesson 47 - navya@j
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 47: Lesson 47: All About OLED Displays!
Lesson 48 - larstas
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 48: Lesson 48: All About Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)!
Lesson 49 - cherri94
[MIUI Device Classroom] Lesson 49: All Info About Video Recording!


Sources

Google for images.

Credits

Million of thanks to @SaiTyson for his guidance in every possible way. Special thanks to Ma'am @candicesu, @Nanana and beloved admins for their continuous supervision. Thanks to My Seniors @marcus_keong, @BharatG for giving me an opportunity to make this possible and to my team for their support.


Best Regards

Saikumarsk

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thanks for information

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10:37, Jul-19-2017 | From PC
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Thanks for sharing this informative article

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10:37, Jul-19-2017 | From PC
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1.  Very informative and helpful! Thanks!       

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10:50, Jul-19-2017 | From Redmi 3S
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thanks

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10:53, Jul-19-2017 | From APP
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nice...

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10:53, Jul-19-2017 | From Redmi Note 4X
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thanks for sharing so valuable article

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10:55, Jul-19-2017 | From PC
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Thanks for the share. Awsome work!

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saikumarsk + 5 Thanks! Bro

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