Lesson 33: All about USB
What is USB?USB or Universal Serial Bus is a protocol for connecting peripherals to a computer. It features a regulated port and architecture to accommodate many different types of hardware devices. Many modern devices such as digital cameras, smart tv, printers, scanners, flash drives, cell phones, iPods and other MP3 players use some variation of the USB port in their design.
Note: Before starting i would like explain the difference between Mbps(megabits per second) and MBps(megabytes per second), A byte is eight times bigger than bits, or it can be said that 1 byte = 8 bits.
Since there is a lot of confusion regarding this to some people, Many of them assume that download speed of 5 Megabit per second (5 Mbps) will allow them to download a 5 Megabyte file in one second but this not true, Megabyte is 8 times larger than a Megabit.Therefore 5 Mbps will provide 0.625 MBps.Therefore there is huge difference between the two. Hope the doubt has been resolved. Now let's begin!
The Evolution of USBThe first USB technology was developed in 1994 and was co-invented by Ajay Bhatt of Intel and the USB-IF (USB Implementers Forum,Inc). Before this, the computers used parallel and serial ports to connect devices and transfer data.
There were some disadvantages of parallel ports and serial ports due to which the further development on transferring data focused on USB.
The attempt to use multiple interfaces and high volume of incompatibilities helped to signal the demand for a technology like USB.
- Expansion cards and custom drivers were often required to connect the devices.
- Parallel ports transfer rate was approximately 100 kilobytes per second, where as serial ports had 115 to more than 450 kilobits per second.
- Some ports could not run concurrently.
Different Standards of USB
The increase in demand for the USB resulted in its massive development. Year after year, advancement in technology brought various standard of USB.From USB 1.0 to the latest USB 3.1.
How it All StartedThe Era of USB 1.0 (Universal Serial Bus 1.0) began from late 1995.The maximum transfer rate was 12 megabits per second. Later on a revised version of it entered the market named USB 1.1 which had a capability to perform at slow speed of 1.5 megabits per second for lower bandwidth devices. Due to its efficiency, it was more adopted by consumers than its predecessor.
USB 2.0 (Universal Serial Bus 2.0) is the second generation of USB technology which consists a group of input and output wires with a port connection.It is capable to transfer data at 480 megabits per second which resulted as a great achievement over USB 1.1. It also offered plug and play incompatibilities for various multimedia and storage devices.
USB 2.0 added support for power sources with usb connectors as well as a support for USB On-The-Go.
USB 3.0 is the third generation of USB (Universal Serial Bus) technology. It is often called SS USB 3.0. The name SS(SuperSpeed) comes from the higher data transfer rate which is much more than the previous standards of USB 1.1 and USB 2.0. USB 3.0 can transfer data at a speed of up to 4.8 gigabits per second. It also provides backward compatibility with USB 2.0 devices and ports. A USB 3.0 cable or device may be plugged into a USB 2.0 port, but the speed rate will only work with USB 3.0 cables, devices and ports. Devices will charge at a faster pace while using energy more resourcefully.
USB 3.0 will allow devices like high resolution cameras or audio and external drives that are optimized at higher bandwidths to operate more effectively. Power efficiency is another noted feature of USB 3.0. It can operate in three different modes to safeguard against excess energy use.
Q: How to detect a USB 3.0 device or port?
A: It’s the only one that is color blue inside.
As technology shifts forward, modern devices, new media formats and voluminous storage devices are focused, it requires notably more bandwidth to maintain the bilateral experience, in addition to high performance. So here comes the USB 3.1 for the unmatched and uncompromised speed and performance with its Gen 1 and Gen 2 from the USB-IF.
USB 3.1 Gen 1 has some improvements over USB 3.0 since it has Optimized Power Efficiency to a great level with unmatched speed of 5 Gigabits per second, and has a backward compatibility too but the SuperSpeed USB (USB 3.1 Gen 2) from USB-IF comes with a Sync-N-Go technology that reduces user waiting time and provides a super fast 10 Gigabits per second speed and Improved data encoding for better and efficient data transfer. It also has a backward compatibility with USB 2.0 products. Therefore it is the best in class right now for high speed performance and experience. Q: How to detect a USB 3.1 device or port?
A: It’s the only one that is color red inside.
Some Interesting Facts
Firewire (known alternatively as IEEE-1394) FireWire 400 supported speeds of up to 400 Mbps, compared to 12 Mbps for USB 1.1 devices, and FireWire 800 went up to 800 Mbps while USB 2.0 operated at 480 Mbps. As a result, it gained attraction in high-end external storage products and video equipment that needed a lot of bandwidth, but USB remained cheaper, and therefore more widely used and more widely supported. Other, faster FireWire versions that had a maximum speeds of 1.6Gbps, 3.2 Gbps, and 6.4 Gbps were in different stages of development, but since Apple stopped including it in most of its products, support for the interface has almost ended.
Lightning (connector) introduced by apple is an 8-pin connector which carries a digital signal. The Lightning connector can be inserted either face up or face down. It almost matches the speed of USB 3.0.
USB Type-CUSB Type-C was developed around 2013, USB Type-C is a USB specification for a small 24-pin reversible-plug connector for USB devices and USB cabling.
The USB Type-C Specification 1.0 was created by the USB Implementer Forum in August 2014. The type-C plug connects to both hosts and devices, replacing the Type-A and Type-B connectors. USB Type-C devices also support power currents of 1.5 A and 3.0. A over the 5V power bus in addition to baseline 900 mA; devices can either negotiate increased USB current through the configuration line or they can support the full Power Delivery specification. It also has benefits over 3.5 mm Audio jack. Type-C is new for various devices, the OEM's are focusing on device supporting Type-C.
Trivia: Did you know that the USB Type C can be used in reverted way like the lightning USB of Apple?
Micro USB is similar to mini USB and smaller than standard USB. It also comes in the form of data cable, charger or connector of digital cameras and mobiles. Micro USB cycle life is extended up to 10,000 connects and disconnects. Its main function is to transfer the data or charging received from the other side of USB ports or adapter. It has also five pins and all of its pins are operative included ID pin in micro USB AB. By this feature, now these cables can send the storage data in two way direction and also works as charging connectors. Micro and Mini USBMini USB is a smaller USB than standard USB, It has four pins. Mini USB often works in one direction, either for sending and receiving of storage data or as a charger connector. Mini USB cycle life is 5,000 connects and disconnects. That means after its successful use for 5,000 times, it will be useless.
Here comes the end of the lesson. Hope you enjoyed my lesson. Let's have a break and wait for the next lesson from MIUI Device Team!
Credits- @mitch002 for suggesting me the topic and supporting me in writing this lesson.
I would like to specially thank @marcus_keong,@BharatG,@soumya_2002,Admins,SMod's,Mod's and Device Team for their support! I hope you liked the thread.
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