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[Discussion] All You Need to Know About Meltdown and Spectre- The New Massive Security Flaws!

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22:30, Jan-06-2018 | From PC
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meltdown-spectre-kernel-vulnerability.png

Hello MIUI'ers,

The tech industry has been all a buzz over the last few days with talk about a fundamental flaw in Intel’s CPUs that makes it easy for malware to steal sensitive data (like passwords, cryptographic keys and banking information) directly from memory, memory that would normally be off limits. There are actually two vulnerabilities, dubbed by security researchers‘Meltdown’ and ‘Spectre’ and they affect other platforms besides Intel’s.

These security flaws have been found within computer processors. They could allow hackers to steal sensitive data without users knowing, one of them affecting chips made as far back as 1995.


Here’s what you need to know about them:

https_//blueprint-api-production.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/card/image/687543/e4c1.jpg

What are Meltdown and Spectre?

Spectre and Meltdown are the names of the flaws found in a number of processors from Intel, ARM and AMD that could allow hackers to access passwords, encryption keys and other private information from open applications.

Meltdown is a security flaw that could allow hackers to bypass the hardware barrier between applications run by users and the computer’s core memory, which is normally highly protected. Spectre is slightly different. It potentially allows hackers to trick otherwise error-free applications into giving up secret information.

The flaws, found by a number of people including a member of Google’s Project Zero, are sending shock waves through the IT world. In total there are three known variants of this basic problem:

  • Spectre (CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715)
  • Meltdown (CVE-2017-5754)


security-1.max-1000x1000.png

Is it serious?

Yes. Meltdown is “probably one of the worst CPU bugs ever found” according to Daniel Gruss, one of the researchers at Graz University of Technology who discovered the flaw. It is very serious in the short term and needs immediate attention.

The problem with Meltdown is that anything that runs as an application could in theory steal your data, including simple things such as javascript from a web page viewed in a browser.
Spectre, on the other hand, is harder for hackers to take advantage of but is also more difficult to fix and is expected to be a bigger problem in the long term.

How do Meltdown and Spectre work?

Processors are one of the building blocks of digital devices. They allow your device to “think,” by performing a staggering number of tiny calculations per second.

According to researchers,Meltdown "basically melts security boundaries which are normally enforced by the hardware." Spectre, meanwhile, "breaks the isolation between different applications" allowing "an attacker to trick error-free programs, which follow best practices, into leaking their secrets."

The vulnerabilities allow an attacker to compromise the privileged memory of a processor by exploiting the way processes run in parallel. They also allow an attacker to use JavaScript code running in a browser to access memory in the attacker’s process. That memory content could contain key strokes, passwords, and other valuable information.

47C091E900000578-5233831-Details_have_emerged_about_two_massive_security_flaws_w.jpg

This information leakage can be used directly; for example, a malicious JavaScript in a browser could steal passwords stored in the browser. It can also be used in tandem with other security flaws to increase their impact. Information leakage tends to undermine protections such as ASLR (address space layout randomization), so these flaws may enable effective exploitation of buffer overflows.

99465442_gettyimages-168649619.jpg

Meltdown, applicable to virtually every Intel chip made for many years, along with certain high-performance ARM designs, is the easier to exploit and enables any user program to read vast tracts of kernel data.

Spectre, applicable to chips from Intel, AMD, and ARM, and probably every other processor on the market that offers speculative execution, too, is more subtle. It encompasses a trick testing array bounds to read memory within a single process, which can be used to attack the integrity of virtual machines and sandboxes, and cross-process attacks using the processor's branch predictors (the hardware that guesses which side of a branch is taken and hence controls the speculative execution).

What can be stolen?

The core system, known as the kernel, stores all types of sensitive information in memory. This means banking records, credit cards, financial data, communications, logins, passwords and secret information could which is all be at risk due to Meltdown.
Spectre can be used to trick normal applications into giving up sensitive data, which potentially means anything processed by an application can be stolen, including passwords and other data.

Is it already being used to steal data?

The UK’s National Cyber Security Centre said that there is no evidence that Meltdown and Spectre are actively being used to steal data at the moment, but the nature of the attacks make them difficult to detect.
Experts expect that hackers will quickly develop programs to launch attacks now that the information is available. Dan Guido, chief executive of cybersecurity consulting firm Trail of Bits, said: “Exploits for these bugs will be added to hackers’ standard toolkits.”

What should we do?

Users can do little to avoid the security flaws apart from update their computers with the latest security fixes as soon as possible. Fixes for Linux and Windows are already available. Chromebooks updated to Chrome OS 63, which started rolling out in mid-December, are already protected.

Android devices running the latest security update are already protected. Updates are expected to be delivered soon. Users of other devices will have to wait for the updates to be pushed out by third-party manufacturers.

meltdown-spectre-powershell.png

On Thursday night, Apple advised customers in a blog post to update their devices’ operating systems and only download software from “trusted sources such as the App Store”. The company also said that “there are no known exploits impacting customers at this time”.

Arm has also released a full security advisory called Vulnerability of Speculative Processors to Cache Timing Side-Channel Mechanism. Basically it says that the Cortex-A57, the Cortex-A72 and the Cortex-A73 are vulnerable to Spectre, and only the Cortex-A75 is vulnerable to Meltdown. The important thing here is that the Cortex-A53 and Cortex-A55 cores are NOT affected. This is because those two processors cores don’t do out-of-order execution. A large portion of the current mid-range Android handsets use the Cortex-A53 in an octa-core arrangement, including devices with the Qualcomm Snapdragon 630, Snapdragon 626, Snapdragon 625, and all Snapdragon 4xx processors.

Intel-Chips-e1493830982397.jpg

Conclusions

Meltdown, though easier to exploit, is also easier to protect against; the operating system changes appear successful and should do a solid job for the Intel, Apple, and future ARM chips that are susceptible to the attack.

Spectre, however, is going to be a trickier customer. It doesn't have any clean, simple fix.
Longer term, it seems likely that Meltdown will recede into the distance—an annoyance, perhaps, but fully patched and protected against—but the rather more subtle Spectre is going to be with us for a while.


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Thanks for sharing

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12:30, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Thanks for sharing informative article

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12:50, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Nice to know

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13:19, Jan-11-2018 | Via mobile
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bad news :(

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13:54, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Thanks for sharing

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Worth to read

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15:05, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Yes, I might be vulnerable to this attack.       
       

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15:05, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Thanks for sharing!

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15:05, Jan-11-2018 | From PC
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Thats quite an informative article

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